Longevity Records:
Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish

References

Canis lupus (Gray wolf)

[201]Mech, L.D., 1970. The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
[202]Mech, L.D., 1974. Canis lupus. Mammalian Species 37: 6.
[203]Mech, L.D., 1977. Population trend and winter deer consumption in a Minnesota wolf pack, in Proceedings of the 1975 Predator Symposium, R.L. Phillips and C. Jonkel, Editors. Univ. Montana, Missoula: Montana Forest and Conservation Experimental Station:
[204]Mech, L.D., 1977. Productivity, mortality, and population trends of wolves in northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Mammalogy 58: 559-574.
[205]Mech, L.D., 1989. Wolf longevity in the wild. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin 14: 8.
[206]Medjo, D.C. and L.D. Mech, 1976. Reproductive activity in nine- and ten-month-old wolves. Journal of Mammalogy 57: 406-408.
[317]VanBallenberghe, V., A.W. Erickson, and D. Byman, 1975. Ecology of the Timber Wolf in Northeastern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 43: 43.
[318]VanBallenberghe, V. and L.D. Mech, 1975. Weights, growth and survival of timber wolf pups in Minnesota. Journal of Mammalogy 56.

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