Longevity Records:
Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish


Ursus (= Euarchtos) americanus (American black bear)

[10]Banfield, A.W.F., 1974. The Mammals of Canada: University Toronto Press.
[145]Jonkel, C.J., 1978. Black, brown (grizzly) and polar bears, in Big Game of North America, J.L. Schmidt and D.L. Gilbert, Editors. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books: p. 227-248.
[242]Poelker, R.J. and H.D. Hartwell, 1973. Black Bear of Washington: Washington State Game Department Biology.

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