Longevity Records:
Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish


Canis mesomelas (Black-backed jackal)

[12]Bekoff, M., 1975. Social behavior and ecology of the African canidae: A review, in The Wild Canids, M.W. Fox, Editor. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold: p. 120-142.
[22]Bothma, J.D.P., 1971. Control and ecology of the black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas in the Transvaal. Zoology Africa 6: 187-193.
[159]Kingdon, J., 1977. An Atlas of Evolution in Africa III (A): Carnivores. London: Academic Press.
[215]Moehlman, P.D., 1978. Jackals of the Serengeti. Wildlife News; African Wildlife Leadership Foundation 13: 2-6.
[216]Moehlman, P.D., 1983. Socioecology of silverbacked and golden jackals (Canis mesomelas and Canis aureus). American Society of Mammals Special Publication 7: 423-453.

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