Longevity Records:
Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish


Ursus (= Thalarctos) maritimus (Polar bear (+))

[51]DeMaster, D.P. and I. Stirling, 1981. Ursus maritimus. Mammalian Species 145: 7.
[169]Latinen, K., 1987. Longevity and fertility of the polar bear, Ursus maritimus Phipps, in captivity. Zool. Garten 57: 197-199.
[253]Ramsay, M.A. and I. Stirling, 1988. Reproductive Biology and Ecology of Female Polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Zoology 214: 601-634.
[300]Stirling, I., W. Calvert, and D. Andriashek, 1980. Population ecology studies of the polar bear in the area of southeastern Baffin Island. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Papers 44: 33.
[316]Uspenski, S.M. and S.E. Belikov, 1976. Research on the polar bear in the USSR, in Bears--Their Biology and Management, M.R. Pelton, J.W. Lentfer, and G.E. Folk, Editors. International Union Conservation Nature Publ.: p. 321-323.

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