Longevity Records
Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish



[1]Ackerman, L.T., 1971. Contributions to the Biology of the Leopard Shark, Triakis semifasciata (Girard) in Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, California. Sacramento, CA: Sacramento State College.
[2]Alm, G., 1951. Year class fluctuations and span of life of perch. Drottningholm: Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm, Fishery Board of Sweden.
[3]Altman, P.L. and D.S. Dittmer, eds. 1962. Growth, Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. Biological Handbooks. Washington, D. C.: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.
[4]Alverson, D. and S. Westrheim, 1961. Rapports Proces-Verbaux Reunions Conseil Permanent Intern Exploration Mer, Vol. 150: 12.
[5]Anderson, A.W., 1954. 152-Year old lake sturgeon caught in Ontario. Commercial Fisheries Review 18: 28.
[6]Anderson, R.D. and C.F. Bryan, 1970. Age and growth of three surfperches (Embioticidae) from Huboldt Bay, California. Transactions of American Fisheries Society 99: 475-482.
[7]Anderson, R.S., 1988. Columbia River Sturgeon. Seattle, WA: Washington Sea Grant Report No. WSG AS88-14.
[8]Anonymous, 1951. Annual Report Fishery Division. State Game Commission Oregon.
[9]Applegate, V.C. and B.R. Smith, 1950. Sea lamprey spawning runs in the Great Lakes in 1950. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Scientific Report: Fisheries Vol. 61.
[10]Arora, H.L., 1951. An investigation of the California sand dab, Citharichthys sordidus (Girard). California Fish and Game 37: 1-42.
[11]Babcock, J., 1929. Canadian fisherman Canadian Fisherman, Vol. 16: 39.
[12]Bagenal, T., 1955. The growth rate of the rough dab Hippoglosssoides platessoides (Fabr.). Journal of Marine Biological Association 34: 297.
[13]Bailey, M.M., 1964. Age, growth, maturity, and sex composition of the American smelt, Osmerus mordax (Mitchill) of Western Lake Superior. Transactions of American Fisheries Society 93: 382.
[14]Bailey, R.M. and K.F. Lagler, 1938. An analysis of hybridization in a population of stunted sunfishes in New York. Michigan Academy of Sciences 23: 588.
[15]Bajkov, A., 1930. [No title]. Transactions of American Fisheries Society 60: 215.
[16]Barnaby, J.T., 1944. Fluctuations in abundance of red salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbrim) of the Karluk River, Alaska. U. S. Fish Wildlife Service Fishery Bulletin 50: 237.
[17]Barney, R.L. and B.J. Anson, 1923. Life history and ecology of the orange spotted sunfish, Lepomis humilis. U. S. Fisheries Commisson Report, Vol. 15.
[18]Barnickol, P.G. and W.C. Starrett, 1951. Commercial and sport fisheries of the Mississippi River between Caruthersville, Missouri, and Dubuque, Iowa. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin, Vol. 25: 267.
[19]Baxter, J.L., 1960. Inshore Fishes of California. Sacramento: California Department of Fish and Game.
[20]Baxter, J.L., 1960. A study of the yellowtail Seriola dorsalis (Gill). California Department of Fish and Game Bulletin, Vol. 110: 29.
[21]Baxter, J.L., 1967. Summary of biological information on the northern anchovy Engraulis mordax girard. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigative Report, Vol. 11: 110-116.
[22]Beamish, R.J., 1979. New information on the longevity of Pacific ocean perch (Sebastes alutus). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36: 1395-1400.
[23]Beardsley, A.J. and C.E. Bond, 1970. Field Guide to Common Marine and Bay Fishes of Oregon. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, Vol. 607: 27. Corvallis: Oregon State University.
[24]Bennett, J.T., G.W. Boehlert, and K.K. Turekian, 1982. Confirmation of longevity in Sebastes diploproa (Pisces: Scopraenidae). Marine Biology 71: 209-215.
[25]Berdegue, J.A., 1955. La pesqueria de la totoaba (Cynoscion macdonaldi Gilbert) en San Felipe, Baja, California. Revista De La Sociedad Mexicana De Historia Natural 16: 45-78.
[26]Beverton, R.J.H., 1982. Unpublished.
[27]Beverton, R.J.H., J.R. Beddington, and D.M. Lavigne, eds. 1985. Marine Mammals and Fisheries. Boston: G. Allen & Unwin.
[28]Beverton, R.J.H. and S.J. Holt, 1959. A review of the lifespans & mortality rates of fish in nature and their relationship to growth and other physiological characteristics. Ciba Foundation Colloquia on Ageing, Vol. 5: 142-180.
[29]Blackburn, M., 1950. The Tasmanian whitebait , Lovettia seali (Johnston) and the whitebait fishery. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 1: 155-198.
[30]Bobick, J.E. and M. Peffer, eds. 1993. Science and Technology Desk Reference. Washington, D.C.: Gale Research Inc.
[31]Bowers, A.B., 1960. Growth of the witch (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus) in the Irish Sea. Conseil Permanent Interior Exploration Mer, Vol. 25.
[32]Breder, C.M.J., 1936. Bulletin New York Zoological Society 39: 116.
[33]Brothers, E.B., 1975. The Comparative Ecology and Behavior of Three Sympatric California Gobies. San Diego, CA: University of California, San Diego.
[34]Campana, S.E., 1984. Comparison of age determination methods for the starry flounder. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 113: 365-369.
[35]Campana, S.E., 1990. Determination of longevity in redfish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 163-165.
[36]Carlander, K.D., 1950. Handbook of Freshwater Fishery Biology. Dubuque, IA: W. C. Brown.
[37]Carlander, K.D., 1969. Handbook of Freshwater Biology I. Life History data on Freshwater fishes of the United States and Canada, exclusive of the Perciformes Vol. 1. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
[38]Carlisle, J.G.J., J.W. Scott, and N.J. Abramson, 1960. The barred surfperch (Amphistichus argentas agassiz) in southern California. California Department of Fish and Game Bulletin, Vol. 68: 443.
[39]Caywood, M.L., 1974. Contributions to the Life History of the Split-tail Pogonichthys macrolepidotus (Ayres). Sacramento: California State University, Sacramento.
[40]Chang, H.-W., 1951. Age and growth of Callionymus lyra L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 30: 281-295.
[41]Chilton, D.E., 1982. Age determination methods for fishes studies by the groundfish program at the Pacific biological station. In D.E. Chilton and R.J. Beamish (eds.), Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 102. Ottawa: Dep
[42]Christensen, J., 1960. The stock of soles (Solea solea) and the sole fishery on the Danish North Sea coast. Danmarks Fisk--Havundersokelser Medd. 3: 19.
[43]Clark, F.N., 1925. The life history of Leuresthes tenuisan atherine fish with tide controlled spawning habits. California Fish and Game Fish Bulletin 10: 51.
[44]Clark, F.N., 1929. The life history of the California jack smelt, Atherinopsis californienses. California Fish and Game 16: 22.
[45]Clark, F.N., 1938. Grunion in Southern California. California Department of Fish and Game Bulletin, Vol. 24: 49.
[46]Clark, F.N., 1940. The application of sardine life history to the industry. California Fish and Game Bulletin 26: 39-48.
[47]Clark, F.N. and J.B. Phillips, 1952. The northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) in California fishery. California Fish and Game 38: 198.
[48]Clark, J., 1963. Aquarium Records.
[49]Clemens, W.A., 1939. The fishes of Okanagan Lake and nearby waters. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 56: 27.
[50]Clemmens, W.A. and G.V. Wilby, 1961. Fishes of the Pacific coast of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada 68: 443.
[51]Compagno, L.J.V., 1988. Sharks of the Order Carcharhiniformes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
[52]Cooper, G.P., 1936. Papers of Michigan Academy of Science. 22: 587.
[53]Crow, G.L. and J.D. Hewitt, 1988. Longevity records for captive Tiger sharks Galeocerdo Cuvier with notes on behavior management. International Zoological Yearbook, Vol. 27: 237-240.
[54]DeSylva, D.P., 1957. Studies on the age and growth of the Atlantic sailfish, Istiophorus americanus (Cuvier), using length-frequency curves. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean 7: 1-20.
[55]Devold, F., 1938. The north Atlantic halibut and net fishing. Fiskeridirektoratet Reports on Norwegian Fishery and Marine Investigations, Vol. 5.
[56]deVries, D.A. and M.E.J. Chittenden, 1982. Spawning, age determination, longevity, and mortality of the silver seatrout, Cynoscion nothus in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fishery Bulletin 80: 487-500.
[57]Dickie, L.M. and F.D. McCracken, 1955. Isopleth diagrams to predict equilibrium yields of a small flounder fishery. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board 12: 187-209.
[58]Dymond, J.R., 1943. The coregonine fishes of northwestern Canada. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 24: 172.
[59]Emmett, R.L., 1991. Distribution and Abundance of Fishes and Invertebrates in West Coast Estuaries. II: Species Life History Summaries. Rockville, MD: U.S. Dept. of Commerce; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service.
[60]Erkkila, L.F., J.W. Moffett, O.B. Cope, B.R. Smith, and R.S. Nielson, 1950. Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta fishery resources: effects of Tracy pumping plant and delta cross channel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Servie Special Scientific Report 56: 109.
[61]Eschmeyer, W.N., W.S. Herald, and H. Hammann, 1983. A Field Guide to Pacific Coast Fishes of North America. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
[62]Feder, H.M., C.H. Turner, and C. Limbaugh, 1974. Observations of fishes associated with kelp beds in Southern California. California Department of Fish and Game Bulletin 160: 144.
[63]Fitch, J.E., 1951. Age composition of the southern catch of Pacific mackerel 1939-1940 and 1950-1951. California Fish and Game 83: 27.
[64]Fitch, J.E., 1955. Pontinus clemensi, a new scorpaenoid fish from the tropical eastern Pacific. Journal Washington Academy of Science 45: 61.
[65]Fitch, J.E., 1956. Age composition of the southern California catch of Pacific mackerel for the 1954-55 season. California Fish and Game 42: 143-148.
[66]Fitch, J.E., 1960. Offshore Fishes of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game.
[67]Fitch, J.E. and R.J. Lavenberg, 1971. Marine Food and Game Fishes of California. California Natural History Guides 28. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
[68]Fitch, J.E. and R.J. Lavenberg, 1975. Tidepool and Nearshore Fishes of California Vol. 38. Berkeley, CA: University California Press.
[69]Fleming, A.M., 1960. Age, growth and sexual maturity of Cod (Gadius morhua L.) in the Newfoundland Area, 1947 - 1950. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 17: 775.
[70]Flower, M.S.S., 1925. Contributions to our knowledge of the duration of life in vertebrate animals - I. Fishes. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1925(1): 247-267.
[71]Flower, M.S.S., 1935. Further notes on the duration of life in animals. - I. Fishes: as determined by otolith and scale - readings and direct observations on living animals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1935: 265.
[72]Foerster, R.E., 1929. An investigation of the life history and propagation of the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) at Cultus Lake, British Columbia. No. 1. Introduction and the run of 1925. Contributions to Canadian Biology and Fisheries 5: 1-35.
[73]Foerster, R.E., 1968. The sockeye salmon, Onchorhynchus nerka. Fish Research Board Canada Bulletin No. 162: 422.
[74]Fraser, J.M., 1983. Longevity of first generation splake. Progressive Fish-Culturist 45: 233-234.
[75]Frey, H.W., 1971. California's Living Marine Resources and Their Utilization. Sacramento, CA: California Department Fish Game.
[76]Frost, W.E., 1943. The natural history of the minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus. Journal of Animal Ecology 12: 139-162.
[77]Frost, W.E., 1945. The age and growth of eels (Anguilla anguilla) from the Windermere catchment area. Journal of Animal Ecology 14: 106-124.
[78]Frost, W.E. and W.J.P. Smyly, 1952. The brown trout of a morrland fish pond. Journal of Animal Ecology 21: 62-86.
[79]Fry, H.D.J., 1936. Life history of Hesperoleucus venustus Snyder. California Fish and Game 22: 65.
[80]Grainger, E.H., 1953. On the age, growth, migration, reproductive potential and feeding habits of the Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) of Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 10: 326-371.
[81]Grant, C.J. and et.al., 1979. Estimation of growth, mortality and yield per recruit of the Australian school shark, Galeorhinus australis (Macleay) from tag recoveries. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 30 (5): 625-637.
[82]Green, D.M. and R.C. Heidinger, 1994. Longevity record for largemouth bass. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 14: 464-465.
[83]Greenbank, J. and P.R. Nelson, 1959. Life history of the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus linnaeus in Karbuk Lake and Bore Lake, Kodiak Island, Alaska. U. S. Fish Wildlife Service Fishery Bulletin 153: 537.
[84]Haaker, P.L., 1975. The biology of the California halibut, Paralichthys californicus (Ayers), in Anaheim Bay, California Vol. Fish Bull. 165: California Fish Game.
[85]Hagerman, F.B., 1952. The biology of the dover sole, Microstomus pacificus (Lockington). California Division of Fish and Game Bulletin 85: 31.
[86]Hammett, F.S. and D.W. Hammett, 1939. Proportional length growth of gar (Lepisoseus platyrhincus de Kay). Growth 3: 197.
[87]Hanyu, I., 1956. On the age and growth of argentine (Argentina semifasciata Kishinouye). Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 21: 991-999.
[88]Harris, J.H., 1985. Age of Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata (Perciformes: Percichthyidae), in the Sydney Basin. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 235-246.
[89]Hart, J.L., 1928. Data on the rate of growth of pike perch (Stizostedion vitreum) and sauger (S. canadense) in Ontario. University of Toronto, Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory 34: 44-55.
[90]Hart, J.L., 1931. The growth of the whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill). Contributions to Canadian Biology and Fisheries 6: 427-444.
[91]Hart, J.L., 1973. Pacific fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board Canada Bulletin Vol. 180: 740.
[92]Hart, T., 1950. A note on growth zones in bones of Phycis blennoides brunn. Journal Conseil Permanent International Exploration Mer 16: 335.
[93]Healey, M.C., 1986. Salmonid age at maturity. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 89: 39-52.
[94]Heath, K.L., 1980. Comparative Life Histories of 2 Species of Anchovies, Anchoa delicatissima and A. compressa (F. Engraulidae) from Newport Bay, CA. Fullerton, CA: California State University.
[95]Herald, E.S. and M. Rakowicz, 1951. Stable requirements for raising sea horses. Aquarium Journal 22: 234-242.
[96]Hile, R., 1931. Indiana Lakes Streams Invest. 2: 9.
[97]Hill, C.M., 1985. Klamath River Basin Fisheries Resource Plan: Various pagination: U. S. Department of Interior.
[98]Hinton, 1962. Horned shark, gar, mormyriad, characin, carp, armored catfish, arowana, upside down catfish.
[99]Hoenig, 1979. Bull shark, dusky shark.
[100]Hubbell, P.M., 1966. Pumpkinseed sunfish, in Inland Fisheries Management, Calhoun, Editor.: California Dept. Fish. Game. 402-404, 405-407.
[101]Hubbs, C.L., 1921. An ecological study of the life-history of the fresh-water atherine fish Labidesthes sicculus. Ecology 2: 262-276.
[102]Jester, D.B., 1982. Age and growth, fecundity, abundance and biomass production of the white sands pupfish, Cyprinodon tularosa (Cyprinodontidae) in a desert pond. Southwestern Naturalist 27: 43-54.
[103]Johnson, J.E., 1970. Age, Growth, and Population Dynamics of the Threadfin Shad Dorosoma petenense (Gunther), in Central Arizona Resevoirs. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University, Tempe.
[104]Jones, D.E., 1977. Life history of steelhead trout and life history of sea-run cutthroat trout. Alaska Department Fish Game 18: 52-105.
[105]Jones, J.W. and H.B.N. Hynes, 1950. The age and growth of Gasterosteus aculeatus Pygosteus pungitius and Spinachia vulgaris, as shown by their otoliths. Journal of Animal Ecology 19: 59-73.
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[107]Kearn, G.C., 1990. The rate of development and longevity of the monogean skin parasite Entobdella soleae. Journal of Helminthology 64: 340-342.
[108]Keleher, J.J., 1952. Growth and trianenophorus parasitism in relation to taxonomy of Lake Winnipeg ciscoes (Leucichthys). Journal of Fisheries Research Board Canada 8: 469.
[109]Kelly, G.F. and R.S. Wolf, 1959. Age and growth of the redfish (Sebastes marinus) in the Gulf of Maine. U. S. Fish Wildlife Service Fishery Bulletin 156: 1.
[110]Kennedy, W.A., 1953. Growth, maturity, and mortality in the relatively unexploited Lake Trout, Cristiromer Namaycush, of Great Slave Lake. Journal of Fisheries Research Board Canada 11: 827.
[111]Kennedy, W.A., 1954. Growth, maturity and mortality in the relatively unexploited Lake Trout Cristivomer namaycush, of Great Slave Lake. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 11: 827-852.
[112]Krumholtz, L.A., 1948. Reproduction in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird and Girard), and its use in mosquito control. Ecology Monograph 18: 1-43.
[113]Kulkarni, C.V., 1983. Longevity of fish Megalops cyprinoides (Broiss). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 80: 230-232.
[114]Lachner, E.A., E.F. Westlake, and P.S. Handwerk, 1950. Studies on the biology of some percid fishes from western Pennsylvania. American Midland Naturalist 43: 92.
[115]Lea, B.E., 1930. Mortality in the tribe of Norwegian herring. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux Des Reunions 65: 100-117.
[116]Lewis, W.M., 1950. Fisheries investigations on two artificial lakes in southern Iowa II. Fish populations. Iowa State College Journal of Science 24: 287.
[117]Lewis, W.M. and K.D. Carlander, 1948. Growth of the yellow bass, Morone interrrupta gill, in Clear Lake, Iowa. Iowa State College Journal of Science 22: 185.
[118]Limbaugh, C., 1961. Life history and ecologic notes on the black croaker. California Fish and Game 47: 163.
[119]Ling, J.K., 1958. The sea garfish, Reporhamphus melanochir (Cuvier and Valenciennes) (Hemiramphidae) in South Australia: breeding, age determination, and growth rate. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 9: 60.
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[123]Mathews, S.B., 1962. The Ecology of the Sacramento Perch, Archoplites interruptus from Selected Areas of California and Nevada. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley.
[124]Matsuura, S., 1961. Age and growth of flatfish, ganzo birame, Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temmick et Shleger). Record Oceanographic Works Japan Special Report 5: 103.
[125]McCrimmon, H.R., 1968. Carp in Canada. Bulletin of the Fisheries Reserve Board of Canada 165: 93.
[126]McKenzie, R.A., 1958. Age and growth of smelt, Osmerus mordax (Mitchell) of the Miramichi River, New Brunswick. Journal of Fisheries Research Board Canada 15: 1313.
[127]Menon, M.D., 1951. Biomedics of the poor cod (Gadus minutus L.) in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 29: 185-239.
[128]Mense, J.B., 1967. Ecology of the Mississippi silversides, Menidia audens hay, in Lake Texoma. Oklahoma Fisheries Research Laboratory Bulletin 6: 32.
[129]Messtorff, J., 1959. Unterushugen Uber Die Biologie des Whittlings Merlangius merlangus (L.) in der Nordsee. Ber. deut. wiss. Komm. Meeresforsch., n. F. 15: 277.
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[132]Miller, D.J. and J. Schmidtke, 1956. Report on the distribution and abundance of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) along the coast of central and southern California. California Division of Fish and Game Bulletin 42: 163-187.
[133]Miller, E.V. and W.A. Kennedy, 1948. Observations on the lake trout of Great Bear Lake. Journal of Fisheries Research Board Canada 7: 176.
[134]Miller, R.B., 1946. Notes on the Arctic grayling, Thymallus signifer Richardson, from Great Bear Lake. Copeia : 227.
[135]Miller, R.B., 1949. Preliminary Biological Surveys of Alberta Watershed, 1947-1949. Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Dep. of Lands and Forests.
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