Joint associations of depression, genetic susceptibility and the area of residence for coronary heart disease incidence
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 76:3, 281–284 (2022)
Background: Depression is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), but less is known whether genetic susceptibility to CHD or regional-level social indicators modify this association.
Methods: Risk factors of CHD including a Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) were measured for 19 999 individuals residing in Finland in 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012 (response rates 60%–75%). During the register-based follow-up until 2015, there were 1381 fatal and non-fatal incident CHD events. Unemployment rate, degree of urbanisation and crime rate of the municipality of residence were used as regional level social indicators. HRs were calculated using register-based antidepressant purchases as a non-reversible time-dependent covariate.
Results: Those having depression and in the highest quartile of PRS had somewhat higher CHD risk than predicted only by the main effects of depression and PRS (HR for interaction 1.53, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.45). Depression was moderately associated with CHD in high crime (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.90) and weakly in low crime regions (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.33; p value of interaction=0.087). Otherwise, we did not found evidence for interactions.
Conclusions: Those having both depression and high genetic susceptibility need a special attention in healthcare for CHD.